, Invasion of Poland (1939), History of Poland (19391945), and, occupation of Poland (19391945 in 1795 Poland ceased to exist as a sovereign nation and throughout the 19th century remained partitioned by degrees between. The index of banned authors included such Polish authors as Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Stanisław Wyspiański, Bolesław Prus, Stefan Żeromski, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Władysław Reymont, Stanisław Wyspiański, Julian Tuwim, Kornel Makuszyński, Leopold Staff, Eliza Orzeszkowa and Maria Konopnicka. I do not regard a knowledge of reading as desirable." 22 37 Hans Frank echoed him: "The Poles do not need universities or secondary schools; the Polish lands are to be converted into an intellectual desert." 2 The situation. 12 Polish-German cooperation in cultural matters, such as joint public performances, was strictly prohibited. Cafes, restaurants and private homes were turned into galleries or museums; some were closed, with their owners, staff and patrons harassed, arrested or even executed. 10 Indeed, a number of propaganda pieces were created for theater stages. The destruction of Poland's Jewish community, Poland's postwar territorial changes, and postwar migrations left Poland without its historic ethnic minorities. 85 Underground Warsaw University educated 3,700 students, issuing 64 masters and 7 doctoral degrees. 184 a b c Salmonowicz 1994,. .